Beginners To Advance Ethical Hacking Tutorial – Terminologies 5

Beginners To Advance Ethical Hacking Tutorial – Terminologies

 
Following is a list of
important terms used in the field of hacking.
·
Adware − Adware is
software designed to force pre-chosen ads to display on your system.
·
Attack − An attack is an
action that is done on a system to get its access and extract sensitive data.
·
Back door − A back door, or
trap door, is a hidden entry to a computing device or software that bypasses
security measures, such as logins and password protections.
·
Bot − A bot is a program that
automates an action so that it can be done repeatedly at a much higher rate for
a more sustained period than a human operator could do it. For example, sending
HTTP, FTP or Telnet at a higher rate or calling script to create objects at a
higher rate.
·
Botnet − A botnet, also
known as zombie army, is a group of computers controlled without their owners’
knowledge. Botnets are used to send spam or make denial of service attacks.
·
Brute force attack −
A brute force attack is an automated and the simplest kind of method to gain
access to a system or website. It tries different combination of usernames and
passwords, over and over again, until it gets in.
·
Buffer Overflow −
Buffer Overflow is a flaw that occurs when more data is written to a block of
memory, or buffer, than the buffer is allocated to hold.
·
Clone phishing −
Clone phishing is the modification of an existing, legitimate email with a
false link to trick the recipient into providing personal information.
·
Cracker − A cracker is one
who modifies the software to access the features which are considered
undesirable by the person cracking the software, especially copy protection
features.
·
Denial of service attack (DoS) −
A denial of service (DoS) attack is a malicious attempt to make a server or a
network resource unavailable to users, usually by temporarily interrupting or
suspending the services of a host connected to the Internet.
·
DDoS − Distributed denial of
service attack.
·
Exploit Kit −
An exploit kit is software system designed to run on web servers, with the
purpose of identifying software vulnerabilities in client machines
communicating with it and exploiting discovered vulnerabilities to upload and
execute malicious code on the client.
·
Exploit − Exploit is a
piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes
advantage of a bug or vulnerability to compromise the security of a computer or
network system.

·
Firewall − A firewall is a
filter designed to keep unwanted intruders outside a computer system or network
while allowing safe communication between systems and users on the inside of
the firewall.
·
Keystroke logging −
Keystroke logging is the process of tracking the keys which are pressed on a
computer (and which touchscreen points are used). It is simply the map of a
computer/human interface. It is used by gray and black hat hackers to record
login IDs and passwords. Keyloggers are usually secreted onto a device using a
Trojan delivered by a phishing email.
·
Logic bomb −
A virus secreted into a system that triggers a malicious action when certain
conditions are met. The most common version is the time bomb.
·
Malware − Malware is an
umbrella term used to refer to a variety of forms of hostile or intrusive
software, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware,
spyware, adware, scareware, and other malicious programs.
·
Master Program −
A master program is the program a black hat hacker uses to remotely transmit
commands to infected zombie drones, normally to carry out Denial of Service
attacks or spam attacks.
·
Phishing − Phishing is an
e-mail fraud method in which the perpetrator sends out legitimate-looking
emails, in an attempt to gather personal and financial information from
recipients.
·
Phreaker − Phreakers are
considered the original computer hackers and they are those who break into the
telephone network illegally, typically to make free longdistance phone calls or
to tap phone lines.
·
Rootkit − Rootkit is a
stealthy type of software, typically malicious, designed to hide the existence
of certain processes or programs from normal methods of detection and enable
continued privileged access to a computer.
·
Shrink Wrap code −
A Shrink Wrap code attack is an act of exploiting holes in unpatched or poorly
configured software.

·
Social engineering −
Social engineering implies deceiving someone with the purpose of acquiring
sensitive and personal information, like credit card details or user names and
passwords.
·
Spam − A Spam is simply an
unsolicited email, also known as junk email, sent to a large number of
recipients without their consent.
·
Spoofing − Spoofing is a
technique used to gain unauthorized access to computers, whereby the intruder
sends messages to a computer with an IP address indicating that the message is
coming from a trusted host.
·
Spyware − Spyware is
software that aims to gather information about a person or organization without
their knowledge and that may send such information to another entity without
the consumer’s consent, or that asserts control over a computer without the
consumer’s knowledge.
·
SQL Injection −
SQL injection is an SQL code injection technique, used to attack data-driven
applications, in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into an entry
field for execution (e.g. to dump the database contents to the attacker).
·
Threat − A threat is a
possible danger that can exploit an existing bug or vulnerability to compromise
the security of a computer or network system.
·
Trojan − A Trojan, or
Trojan Horse, is a malicious program disguised to look like a valid program,
making it difficult to distinguish from programs that are supposed to be there
designed with an intention to destroy files, alter information, steal passwords
or other information.
·
Virus − A virus is a
malicious program or a piece of code which is capable of copying itself and
typically has a detrimental effect, such as corrupting the system or destroying
data.
·
Vulnerability −
A vulnerability is a weakness which allows a hacker to compromise the security
of a computer or network system.
·
Worms − A worm is a
self-replicating virus that does not alter files but resides in active memory
and duplicates itself.
·
Cross-site Scripting −
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability
typically found in web applications. XSS enables attackers to inject
client-side script into web pages viewed by other users.

Zombie Drone − A Zombie Drone is defined as a hi-jacked
computer that is being used anonymously as a soldier or ‘drone’ for malicious
activity, for example, distributing unwanted spam e-mails. 
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